Information of Himachal Pradesh
independence of India, Himachal was declared as Union territory but later
on its status was raised to part 'C' state till 1966 when some hilly areas
of Punjab were merged in this due to re-organzation of Punjab state.
However, it was declared a fullfledged state on 25.1.71 with 12 districts.
It is larger in area than Punjab, Haryana and Kerala. It is located in the
north-west of India in the lap of Himalaya. It is surrounded by
Jammu-Kashmir in the north, Uttar Pradesh in the south-east, Haryana in
the south and Punjab in the south-west. In the east it has borders with
Tibet. It has an elevation from 450 to 6800 mts. and can be divided into
southern and northern regions. Southern region is warm in summer and the
northern is extremly cold with heavy snow.
Himachal Pradesh has been on the path of progress since Independence. The
literacy rate of the state is 63% now and is improving every decade. The
population has almost stabilized at about 5 million, thanks to high
literacy and effective family planning programs. Every village in the
state has electricity and drinking water now.
Himachal is literally a power house when it comes to hydro-electricity.
The state has many dams that harness the hilly rivers to generate electric
power. The electricity is used by farmers in Punjab, Haryana and by the
industries in the northern plains.Many young men from Himachal serve the
Indian Army and have played significant role in the National defense.
Dharamsala has a war memorial dedicated to the memory of those who lost
their lives for their country.
Himachal has five mighty snow-fed rivers flowing through it - the Chenab,
Ravi, Beas, Sutlej and Yamuna. Climatically, this state is divisible into
two regions - the south which is as warm as the plains, and the north
where the summers are temperate and winters are extremely cold.
According to the Mahabharta the tract which forms
the present day Himachal Pradesh was made up of number of small republics
known as Janpadas each of which constituted both a state and cultural
the most prominent ancient tribes of Himachal who lived in the lower hills
between Pathankot and Jwalamukhi. They formed a separate state in 2 B.C.
lay in the foothills drained by three rivers, i.e. Ravi, Beas and Satluj
and hence the name. It is believed to have been an independent republic.
kingdom of Kilita or Kuluta was situated in the upper Beas valley which is
also known as the Kully valley now.Naggar was the capital of Kilita.
kingdom covered the area lying between the Beas, Satluj and Yamuna rivers,
i.e. the Shimla and Sirmour hills. Their administration resembled a
republic with members of a central assembly sharing the powers of the
slowly subdued most of the republics of Himachal by show of strength or
use of force though he usually did not rule them directly. Ashoka, the
grandson of Chandragupta extended his boundaries to the Himalyan region.
He introduced Buddhism to this tract. He built many stupas one of which is
in the Kullu valley.
collapse of Gupta empire and before the rise of Harsha, this area was
again ruled by petty chiefs known as Thakurs and Ranas. With the rise of
Harsha in the early 7th century, most of these small states acknowledged
his overall supremacy though many local powers remained with the petty
The Rajput Period:-
A few decades after Harsha's death (647 A.D.) many
Rajput states ascended in Rajsthan and Indus plains. They fought amongst
themselves and the vanquished moved to the hills with their followers,
where they set up small states or principalities. These states were Kangra,
Nurpur, Suket, Mandi, Kutlehar, Baghal, Bilaspur, Nalagarh, Keonthal,
Dhami, Kunihar, Bushahar, Sirmour.
The Mughal Period:-
The small hill kingdom enjoyed a large degree of
independence till the eve of Muslim invasions in northern India. States of
the foothills were devastated by Muslim invaders from time to time. Mahmud
Ghaznavi conquered Kangra at the begining of the 10th centuary. Timur and
Sikander Lodi also marched through the lower hills and captured several
forts and fought many battles. Later on as the Mughal dynasty began to
break up; the rulers of the hill states took full advantage. The Katoch
rulers of Kangra availed of this opportunity and Kangra regained
independence status under Maharaja Sansar Chand who ruled for nearly half
a centuary. He was one of the ablest administrators of the region. After
he took formal possession of Kangra fort, Sansar Chand began to expand his
territory. The states of Chamba, Suket, Mandi, Bilaspur, Guler, Jaswan,
Siwan and Datarpur came under the direct or indirect control of Sansar